Inconel DS is a nickel-chromium-iron alloy with silicon which was first developed for woven wire furnace conveyor belts, is now widely used for a range of heat-treatment applications due to its strength and corrosion resistance at high temperatures which enable its use in light section. Alloys for use in high-temperature processes must be able to withstand exposure to hot combustion gases and operating atmospheres for a considerable period of time without the loss of effective sections that can be caused by corrosion.
Inconel DS (W. Nr. 1.4862), in common with other Special Metals Corporation heat-resisting alloys, develops a tightly adherent oxide film that protects its surface against corrosion processes. It is also resistant to ‘green rot’ which can occur in nickel-chromium alloys when atmospheres vary between reducing and oxidizing, and in some cases where the reducing atmosphere is of a carburizing nature. In these conditions, chromium carbide can form along the grain boundaries and preferential oxidation of the depleted chromium matrix follows, a form distinct from ordinary oxidation which produces a passive oxide film.
INCOLOY alloy DS is also resistant to the ‘sigma’ phase, a hard, brittle, complex intermetallic compound, basically iron-chromium, which precipitates in the 600 degrees C -900 degree C range from structures that are either ferritic, mixed ferrite and austenite, or marginally austenitic.
Nickel, austenite former, suppresses the tendency to ‘sigma’ section formation and INCOLOY alloy DS, with a nominal 37 percent nickel content, maybe heated indefinitely within the 600 degrees C -900 degree C range without fear of ‘sigma’ section embrittlement. Thus, the corrosion resistance and strength of INCOLOY alloy DS are employed in a wide variety of applications like high-temperature process equipment ranging from furnace retorts and heat treatment jigs to components used in domestic appliances.
Inconel DS Round Bars is readily fabricated hot and cold and can be joined by standard welding processes. The usual hot working range is 900 degrees C -1200 degree C with heavy working being carried out between 1000 degree C and 1200 degree C. Normal forging operations are usually started from 1200 degree C and light forging is possible down to 900 degrees C. The rate of cooling does not affect the alloy’s hardness and air cooling or quenching is satisfactory. Quenching forgings should be avoided where the variation in the cross-sectional area of the forging is high. Cold working procedures are similar to those for carbon and stainless steel. The alloy’s rate of work hardening is greater than that of low carbon steel but less than that of 18/8 stainless steel.
INCOLOY alloy DS is best machined in the annealed condition, with hot-rolled, as-rolled and hot-forged material. It is best machined on heavy-duty equipment using tools large and heavy enough to withstand the loads and dissipate heat quickly.
INCOLOY alloy DS should be annealed within the range of 1000 degrees C-1150 degree C, the temperature and holding time depending on the thickness of the material and the proposed application. The cooling rate does not affect hardness. Furnace fuel should preferably be sulfur-free. Town’s gas, natural gas, distillate fuel oils, and electricity are suitable. Bright annealing can be carried out in dry hydrogen or cracked ammonia. For most heat treatments and heating processes, the atmosphere should be adjusted to maintain slight oxidizing conditions.
Inconel DS is readily joined to itself or to other metals by standard processes. It is important that material to be welded is in the annealed condition. Removal of welding slag residue is essential to avoid subsequent corrosion in service.
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